At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015. [62] On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration formally communicated to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally entitled to do so. [79] The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date. [80] [81] On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect. [82] After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation. [83] [84] In addition to filling these two obvious gaps, our library analysis offers a few other areas with potential for consolidation. First, there is a clear lack of link between the literature, which provides experimental evidence of the effectiveness of the deposit and verification process (cluster 1), and the literature, which focuses on a more practical analysis of progress in achieving the goals of the Palestinian Authority (cluster 2).

Both clusters focus on the deposit and verification process, and although they use different analytical lenses, they could provide an important insight. The fact that they do not cite similar literature implies that this is not happening yet. The same is true of the literature on climate finance (cluster 4) and the literature that examines the reports and monitoring of the NDCs in accordance with the objectives of the Palestinian Authority (cluster 2). With many NDCs depends on funding (Zhang and Pan 2016; Kissinger et al 2019), it is somewhat surprising that the literature that follows the progress of the NDC is not more closely linked to the literature on climate finance.