In August 2019, Kroger began charging customers between 0.50 and 3.50 $US to receive cash when shopping with debit cards.   The new rates were first tested in March at Dillons stores in Kansas, a supermarket chain owned by Kroger, before the introduction of the new tariffs on other Kroger-owned supermarket banners in the rest of the country.  In addition to a large number of regional branded products, The Kroger Company also employs one of the country`s largest own-brand production networks. Thirty-seven facilities (either wholly owned or with enterprise agreements) in seventeen states manufacture about 40% of Kroger`s own-brand products.  Like most major supermarkets, Kroger pursues a three-step marketing strategy for private labels. One private label showcases no-frills products at the lowest possible price, another must be comparable to leading national brands, but better value for money and the third is a premium brand (often organic). In March 2019, Kroger announced that it would expand its service with robotics company Nuro in Houston, Texas, with Nuro Autonomous Priuses.  Kroger Company, or simply Kroger, is an American retail company founded in 1883 by Bernard Kroger in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is the most profitable supermarket in the United States ($121.16 billion in fiscal year 2019)  and the second largest retailer (behind Walmart).  Kroger is also the fifth largest retailer in the world and the fourth largest U.S.
private employer in the United States.  In terms of sales, Kroger represents #23 the Fortune 500 ranking of the largest American groups.  In December 2019, Kroger was named the country`s second-largest grocer with $110 billion in sales. The same month, USA listed Today Kroger – and its brands – as a high-end supermarket (based on Google, Yelp data and 24/7 search tempos) in Alaska, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington and West Virginia.  On May 17, 2018, Kroger announced a partnership with Ocado, a British online supermarket. The partnership was developed to improve Kroger`s e-commerce program, including online ordering, automated execution and home delivery through the construction of 20 new automated fulfillment centers.  Since November 2019[update], five sites have been built for the new warehouses and two are under construction.  On May 1, 2017, Kroger announced, in collaboration with the University of Kentucky and British athletics, sports and campus marketing partner JMI Sports, a 12-year campus marketing agreement of $1.85 million.