On the economic side of the equation, the Obama administration and many trade economists have argued that lower tariffs and improved market access to the agreement have lowered consumer prices, boosted cross-border investment and boosted U.S. exports. More coherent rules and market-oriented reforms in developing countries such as Vietnam and Malaysia would make all affected economies more efficient and improve productivity and growth. The TPP could give new impetus to trade negotiations between China, Japan and Korea and increase the likelihood of a comprehensive regional economic partnership (RCEP) that could provide a possible path to a free trade area in the Asia-Pacific region.  Robert Z. Lawrence, a Harvard economist, argues that the model used by Tufts researchers „is simply not appropriate for credibly predicting the effects of TPP“ and argues that the model used by Petri and Plummer is superior.  Lawrence argues that the model used by Tufts researchers „does not have the granularity that allows it to assess variables such as exports, imports, foreign direct investment and changes in the industrial structure. As a result, his predictions ignore the benefits to TPP economies resulting from increased specialization, economies of scale and better consumer selection.  Lawrence also notes that the model used by tufts researchers indicates that the TPP will fall by 5.24% in non-TPP developing countries such as China, India and Indonesia, which is very skeptical of Lawrence: „It is not credible that a trade agreement of this magnitude could lead the rest of the world into recession.  Harvard economist Dani Rodrik, a well-known skeptic of globalization, says that Tufts researchers „do a bad job of explaining how their model works, and the details of their simulation are a little dark… lack of sectoral and country-by-country details under Capaldo; his attitudes remain opaque; and its extreme Keynesian assumptions are agitated with its medium-term perspective.  On January 23, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump signed a presidential memorandum to withdraw the U.S. signature from the agreement, making it virtually impossible to ratify, as was the case in February 2016.
 The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) has been at the heart of President Barack Obama`s strategic hub for Asia.